Benison IVF – Infertility Specialist

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Male infertility cases are rising in recent times due to various factors because of which issues related to pregnancy are witnessed among many couples. People with infertility should undergo semen analysis to evaluate the root cause behind infertility in men. Sperm DNA fragmentation is one of the important causes of male infertility. It might reduce the chance of a successful pregnancy and also a live birth by adversely affecting the development of the embryo and escalating the risk of first-trimester miscarriage.

What Is Sperm DNA?

DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid that provides the genetic material for all organisms, including humans, beneficial for reproducing and replicating. In humans, DNA is transferred from parent to offspring through sperm i.e. a male reproductive cell as also through the oocyte or the female reproductive cell.

What Is The Role Of Sperm DNA?

The DNA of sperm is vital in evaluating male infertility Damage to the DNA carried by a sperm or sperm DNA, might influence conception results as well as the health of the baby because a child inherits it from both parents. Sperm fragmentation is a kind of sperm DNA damage, the cause of which is multifactorial. The factors are as follows-

  • Abnormal chromatin is a mix of DNA and other proteins that develops into a chromosome that is packaged and developed at the spermatogenesis phase

  • Reduction in antioxidant content in seminal fluid

Some external variables including

  • Drug abuse

  • Smoking

  • Pollution

  • Higher testicular temperature

  • Advancing age

  • A varicoceles Twisted and inflamed veins present in the scrotum

What Is The Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index?

Sperm DNA fragmentation occurs when the DNA of the sperm is broken down into smaller bits. It is considered the most common type of sperm DNA damage. Also, sperm DNA fragmentation has been connected to many negative outcomes. This consists of low fertility rates, poor quality of the sperm, lower success rates in assisted reproductive procedures like IVF, and obstructed embryonic development after conception.

The structure of the sperm consists of the head, neck, body, and tail. The DNA is situated in the head of the sperm. Oxidative stress can hamper the sperm DNA which leads to infertility in males. In the Sperm DNA fragmentation test or Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index the doctors study the damage to the sperm DNA.

How Do You Know If You Are Suffering From Sperm DNA Fragmentation?

Many sperm tests would help check on the basic sperm health parameters. This would include sperm count, morphology which is the size and shape of the sperm, and motility which is the ability to swim in a forward direction. All of these three factors determine male fertility. If you are suffering from male infertility it is recommended that you take a DNA Fragmentation test.

Possible indications to check for DFI-

  • Recurrent loss of pregnancy

  • Multiple failed IUI cycles

  • Chronic smokers

  • Failed IVF cycles

  • Poor embryo formation of IVF

What Causes Sperm DNA Fragmentation?

The damage in DNA is usually caused due to Reactive Oxygen species in the sperm cells. ROS are produced by mitochondria, commonly referred to as the powerhouse of the cells. As they exhibit the energy that a sperm cell requires, they also produce ROS that can cause DNA Fragmentation. This injury or damage is known as oxidative stress.

Also, as per studies, varicocele can cause sperm DNA Fragmentation where the veins within the scrotum become enlarged which can cause problems in the flow of blood to and from the testes. Environmental factors like diet and airborne pollution can also cause sperm DNA fragmentation.

Additionally, the lifestyle choices of men like drinking and smoking all escalate oxidative stress within the sperm cells. Many people are affected by these problems in their day-to-day lives. If you are planning to conceive then be aware of these issues beforehand.

Causes of Sperm DNA Fragmentation

  • Smoking

  • Excessive Alcohol

  • Junk Food

  • Obesity

  • Cancer

  • Radiation and chemical exposure

  • Drug abuse

  • Diabetes

  • Increased paternal age

  • Air pollution

  • Oxidative stress

  • Varicocele

  • Infections

What Is The Normal Value For Sperm DFI?

  • A DFI that is less than 15% is known as a normal

  • DFI of 15-30% comes under subfertility considering other abnormal semen parameters like low sperm count or poor morphology

  • DFI over 30 is known to be high and may impact the fertility of men

How The Semen Is Collected For DFI?

The semen is collected by masturbation in a wide-mouth container that is provided by the lab. The semen is collected with the information about the patient’s identification, and duration of sexual abstinence. The semen is collected by the Andrologist or Embryologist who is a highly trained and skilled professional to examine the semen sample and provide the report eventually.

How Is The Sperm DNA Fragmentation Index Tested?

For the testing of DFI, the method is similar to semen analysis, after a sperm sample is collected in the clinic, the sample is submitted to the Andrology lab for DFI testing. The integrity of DNA is calculated by counting the number of sperms with abnormal DNA.

Final Note

Male infertility is a matter of research and physical examination by a professional medical expert. DNA Fragmentation is a complex issue that needs urgent medical attention if you are planning to become a parent in the future. Certain lifestyle changes and reduction in oxidative stress beforehand are necessary to eliminate the chances of infertility.

If you are suffering from infertility or any other related issue or you want to know more about how IVF and iCUI work and can benefit from solving fertility issues. Then do contact Benison IVF and Healthcare Clinic via the website or contact number so that you too can become healthy and fertile.

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